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What is Synonymy, What is Antonymy, What is polysemy, What is Homonymy, What is Hyponymy



Two or more words with very closely related meanings are called synonyms. They can often, though not always , be subtitude for each other in sentences. In the appropriate circumstances, we can say, what was his answer? Or what was his reply? With much the same meaning. Other common examples of synonyms are the pairs: almost / nearly, big / large, broad / wide, buy / purchase, cab / taxi, car / automobile, Couch / sofa, freedom / libert.

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
      A.    Background
       Linguistics is concerned with identifying the meaningful elements of specific languages, for example, English words like paint and happy and affixes like the -er of painter and the un- of unhappy. Linguistics also deals with the meanings expressed by modulations of a speaker’s voice and the processes by which hearers and readers relate new information to the information they already have. Semantics is the systematic study of meaning, and linguistic semantics is the study of how languages organize and express meanings. Linguistic semantics is the topic of this book, but we need to limit ourselves to the expression of meanings in a single language, English.
            Semantics has many material some of them; antonymy, synonymy, polisemy, homonymy and hyponymy, these material  will discussed in this here. So, to get more information or explanation about it, read in here the discussion or explanation. 

     B.     Formulation of problem
Based on the background of the problem about synonymy, antonymy, homymy, n polisemy, I would like to formulate the problem :
1.      What is Synonymy?
2.      What is Antonymy?
3.      What is polysemy?
4.      What is Homonymy?
5.      What is hyponymy?

      C.    Purpose Of Study
1.      To make us know what is the Synonymy.
2.      To make us know what is the Antonymy.
3.      To make us know what is the Polysemy.
4.      To make us know what is the Homonymy
5.      To make us know what is the Hyponymy

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A.    Synonymy
        Two or more words with very closely related meanings are called synonyms. They can often, though not always , be subtitude for each other in sentences. In the appropriate circumstances, we can say, what was his answer? Or what was his reply? With much the same meaning. Other common examples of synonyms are the pairs: almost / nearly, big / large, broad / wide, buy / purchase, cab / taxi, car / automobile, Couch / sofa, freedom / liberty.[1]
       J.D Parera on his book “Semantic theory: 2nd Edition” state that two words-which word in form of words, phrase, or sentences that shows same meaning are called synonym or synonymy.
Examples of synonyms are the pairs: almost / nearly, big / large, broad / wide, buy / purchase, cab / taxi, car / automobile, couch / sofa, freedom / liberty.[2]
       According to Palmer, synonymy is used to mean sameness of meaning, while the languages forms that experience And include in part of synonymy is synonym. The definition of synonym according to Harimurti Kridalaksana, is language form that has similar meaning in another form; the similarity is used by word, phrase, or sentence, eventhough which was reputed the synonym as words.[3]
       We should keep in mind that the idea of ‘sameness’ of meaning used in discussing synonymy is not necessarily ‘total sameness’. There are many occasions when one word is appropriate in a sentence, but its synonym would be odd.
For example, whereas the word answer fits in the sentence Sandy had only one answer correct on the test, the word reply would sound odd. Synonymous forms may also differ in terms of formal versus informal uses. The sentence My father purchased a large automobile has virtually the same meaning as My dad bought a big car, with four synonymous replacements, but the second version sounds much more casual or informal than the first.[4] And it quite similar with Prof. Dr. Wagiman Adisutrisno state that synonymy is sameness of meaning which is not concerned with the conceptual meaning of words, but relation of words which have, more or less, the same conceptual meaning.[5]
       From the experts above we can say that synonymy is two related words that has closely meaning even it forms of words, phrase or maybe a sentences. In madurese people if we say :
panatengan
it has closely related meaning with “talam” it is a tools to delivered the food or a drink in party or to our private guess
Lencak
have related same meaning with “ Sanggher” lencak or sanggher is a place to rest a while in madurese people
Sokoh
has a sameness meaning with “ketthek” eventough kettek is how locust feet called

       Another example are “tiang / pangpang, dhemar / tlempek, ngantang/ nganam / molaeh,  sakek / nyoknyok, kek cetak / palengen. Indonesian example of synonymy are rajin/ulet, pintar / tangkas/ pandai, orang paling cantik se-desa / bunga desa.  Another example of synonymy in english are help/ aid, player/ actor, tired / fatigue, answer / reply, buy / purchase. Another example of sentence in madurese people “klambih ollenah nginjem (borrowed shirt) is has related meaning with klambih koning.

B.     Antonymy
        J.D Parera state that antonymy is interdimentional of meaning to state that two meanings or more are contradict meaning or opposites meaning in antonymy status.[6]
        Aminuddin said antonymy is form of contradicted meaning, which form or words that have contradicted meaning called antonym, it can be negative or positive.[7]
       Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms. Antonyms are usually divided into two main types, ‘gradable’ (opposites along a scale) and ‘non-gradable’ (direct opposites).
a.       Gradable antonyms, such as the pair big/small, can be used in comparative constructions like I’m bigger than you and A pony is smaller than a horse. Also, the negative of one member of a gradable pair does not necessarily imply the other. For example, the sentence My car isn’t old, doesn’t necessarily mean My car is new.
Examples are the pairs: alive/dead, big/small, fast/slow, happy/sad, hot/cold, long/short, male/female, married/single, old/new, rich/poor, true/false.[8]
b.      Non-gradable antonyms (also called ‘complementary pairs’), comparative constructions are not normally used.We don’t typically describe someone as deader or more dead than another. Also, the negative of one member of a non-gradable pair does imply the other member. That is, My grandparents aren’t alive does indeed mean My grandparents are dead. Other non-gradable antonyms in the earlier list are the pairs: male/female, married/single and true/false. Although we can use the ‘negative test’ to identify non gradable antonyms in a language, we usually avoid describing one member of an antonymous pair as the negative of the other. For example, while undress can be treated as the opposite of dress, it doesn’t mean ‘not dress’. It actually means ‘do the reverse of dress’. Antonyms of this type are called reversives. Other common examples are enter/exit, pack/unpack, lengthen/shorten, raise/lower, tie/untie.[9]
       Antonymy is words that have opposites meaning of another words. When something is positive absolutely it has neagative as opposites. It happen too in a words in semantic study. Just for another example we will take a words from madurese, english and Indonesian.
      
Madurese
Indonesian
English
Ondhem/terang
Mendung/cerah
Cloudy/sunny
Bheres/sakek
Sehat/sakit
Health/sick
Etotop/ebukkak
Ditutup/dibuka
Close/open
Koros/lempo
Kurus/gemuk
Thin/fat
Ondhur/detheng
Pergi/dating
Go/come
Kaluar/kadelem
Keluar/kedalam
Out/in
Berrek/demmang
Berat/ringan
Heavy/easy

C.    Polysemy
       Wagiman Adisutrisno states that polysemy is a term to refer to a word which has a set of different meaning which are related by extension.[10]
       When we encounter two or more words with the same form and related meanings, we have what is technically known as polysemy. Polysemy can be defined as one form (written or spoken) having multiple meanings that are all related by extension. Examples are the word head, used to refer to the object on top of your body, on top of a glass of beer, person at the top of a company or department, and many other things.[11]
       According to J. D. Parera, Polysemy is a pronounce in word form that have several meaning, but have relation between the difference meanings.[12]
       The connection between form of language with meaning tools it is called as polesemy, while word or the phrase called polysemic.[13]
Example of Polysemy :
Ø  Back          : human back, the back of a chair, the back of a sofa, the back of a knife, the back of the hand, the back of the head, the back football player.
Ø  Foot           : human foot, the foot of a bed, the foot of a hill, the foot of mountain.
Ø  Go             : a man goes, a road goes, fish goes bad soon, a machine goes, a bank goes (collapses), the man has gone (has died).
Ø  Eye            : human eye, the eye of a needle, the eye of a potato, a hook and an eye.
Ø  Run           : a man runs, a ship runs (goes straight and fast), an engine runs (works), a sewing runs, life runs smoothly, a bus runs, news runs, rivers run into the sea, works run, a story runs.
Ø  Lakek (madurese)             :  a gender, it show your gentle
Ø  Kek ningkek tamoninah : temonih is ……. When baby birth, it show you are fearfull.
Ø  Koncok     : a mountain, a blade, a knife, the earth.
Ø  Bucor        : hole of water come in the roof, holle of water out in the bathtube, holeof water come in a sack.
  
     D.    Homonymy
       When two or more word different (written) forms have the same pronunciation, they are described as homophones. Common examples are bare/bear, meat/meet, flour/flower, pail/pale, right/write, sew/so and to/too/two.[14]
        We use the term homonyms when one form (written or spoken) has two or more unrelated meanings, as in these examples:
Ø  Bank          (of a river)
bank          (financial institution)
Ø  bat             (flying creature)
bat             (used in sports)
Ø  mole          (on skin)
mole          (small animal)
Ø  pupil          (at school)
pupil          (in the eye)
Ø  race           (contest of speed)
race           (ethnic group)
      The temptation is to think that the two types of bank must be related in meaning. They are not. Homonyms are words that have separate histories and meanings, but have accidentally come to have exactly the same form.
       According to Aminuddin, Homonymy is several words that have same form of pronounce, but different in meaning.[15] while Prof. Dr. D. Wagiman Adisutrisno state that Homonymy is a term to referto one form, which is the same in both written and spoken, with two or more unreleted meanings.[16]
       Based on Teori Semantik by J. D. Parera, homonymy is to pronounce in one form of word or how they pronounce or written. Therefore, form of homonymy can be differ base on pronounce and written. [17]
       From the explanation of the experts above we can state that homonymy is words which is same form in pronounce or written but have several meanings or different meanings.
E.     Hyponymy
Hyponymy is when the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another. Examples are the pairs : animal / dog, dog / poodle, vegetable / carrot,  flower / rose, tree / banyan. The concept of “inclusion” involved in this relationship is the idea that if an object is a rose, then it is necessarily a flower, so the meaning of flower is included in the meaning of rose. Or, rose is a hyponym of flower.
When we consider hyponymous connections, we are essentially looking at the meaning of words in some type of hierarchical relationship. We can represent the relationships between a set of words such as animal, ant, asp, banyan, carrot, cockroach, creature, dog, flower, horse, insect, living thing, pine, plant, poodle, rose, snake, tree and vegetable as a hierarchical diagram.
The relation of hyponymy captures the concept of “is a kind of,” as when we give the meaning of a word by saying, “an asp is a kind of snake.” Sometimes the only thing we know about the meaning of a word is that it is a hyponym of another term. That is, we may know nothing more about the meaning of the word asp other than that it is a kind of snake or that banyan is a kind of tree. It is worth emphasizing that it is not only words for “things” that are hyponyms. Words such as punch, shoot and stab, describing “actions,” can all be treated as co hyponyms of the superordinate term injure.[18]
Example:
-          Bunga/mawar (indonesia)
-          Keben/bebih (madura)
-          Fish/dholpin (english)


BAB III
CLOSING
A.    Conclusion
 Semantic is the study of meanning in language. In semantic there are explanation or material antonymy, snonymy, polysemy, and homonymy.
a.    Synonymy is sameness of meaning which is not concerned with the conceptual meaning of words, but relations of wods which have, more or less, the same conceptual meaning.
Example :
-          Weak/feeble
-          pintar/tangkas/pandai
-          dhemar/ tlempek
b.   Antonymy is oppositeness of meaning. Like synonymy, antonymy relations of word meaning.
Exmple :
-          Clean/dirty
-          Hitam/putih
-          Beres/sakek
c.    Polysemy is a term of refer to a word which a set of different meaning which are related by extention.
Example :
-          Foot : human foot, the foot of a bed, the foot of a hill, the foot of mountain.
-           
d.   Homonymy is a term to refer to one form, which is the same in both written and spoken with two o more unrelated meanings.
Example :
-          Leaf : of a tree
Leaf : of  a book
-          Bank : tempat penyimpnan uang
-          Bang : tukang ojek, orang jual bakso, jual pentol.
e.    Hyponymy
Hyponymy is when the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another. Examples are the pairs : animal/dog, dog/poodle, vegetable/ carrot,  flower/rose, tree/banyan. The concept of “inclusion” involved in this relationship is the idea that if an object is a rose, then it is necessarily a flower, so the meaning of flower is included in the meaning of rose. Or, rose is a hyponym of flower.

B.     Suggestion
Alhamdulillah, we can finised this paper althought there are so many mistakes in the written. And the writer hope that the reader can understand and get an information from this paper. The author, in this paper to realized that there are still short coming and mistakes. Both in spelling also errors another mistake. In view of he constituent knowledge is still limited. Therefore the authors are expecting critism, suggestion, and feedback that is constructive to fix these papers nd papers next come.



REFERENCE
Adisutrisno Wagiman, Semantic an Introduction to the basic concept, Yogyakarta: CV. Andi Offset, 2008.
Aminuddin, Mpd, Semantik Pengantarstudi Tentang Makna, Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo, 2008.
Parera J.D, Semantik Teori: Edisi Kedua, Ciracas, Jakarta: Erlangga, 2004.
Yule George, The Study Of Languange: 3th  Ediition,  United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006.


APPENDIX
      1.      What is synonymy ?
Synonymy is two words-which word in form of words, phrase, or sentences that shows same meaning.
      2.      What is antonymy ?
antonymy is interdimentional of meaning to state that two meanings or more are contradict meaning or opposites meaning in antonymy status
      3.      What is polysemy ?
polysemy is a term to refer to a word which has a set of different meaning which are related by extension
      4.      What is homonymy ?
Homonymy is a term to refert o one form, which is the same in both written and spoken, with two or more unreleted meanings
      5.      Mansion the  forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms ?
Gradable (opposites along a scale) and non-gradable (direct opposites).
      6.      Explain the Gradable antonymy , and give the example!
It be used in comparative constructions like I’m bigger than you and A pony is smaller than a horse. Also, the negative of one member of a gradable pair does not necessarily imply the other. For example, the sentence My car isn’t old, doesn’t necessarily mean My car is new.
      7.      Explain the non-gradable antonymy, and give the example !
Non-gradable antonymy or comparative constructions are not normally used.We don’t typically describe someone as deader or more dead than another. Also, the negative of one member of a non-gradable pair does imply the other member. Other non-gradable antonyms in the earlier list are the pairs: male/female, married/single and true/false.
      8.      What is the difference between synonymy and antonymy ?
Synonymy is two related words, phrases, or sentences  that has closely meaning, while antonymy is words, phrases, or sentences that have opposites meaning of another words.
      9.      What is the difference between polysemy and homonymy ?
Polysemy is a pronounce in word form that have several meaning, but have relation between the difference meanings, while homonymy is words which is same form in pronounce or written but have several meanings or different meanings.
      10.   What are the meaning of this words “Back, eye, and run” !
Ø  Back : human back, the back of a chair, the back of a sofa, the back of a knife, the back of the hand, the back of the head, the back football player.
Ø  Eye            : human eye, the eye of a needle, the eye of a potato, a hook and an eye.
Ø  Run           : a man runs, a ship runs (goes straight and fast), an engine runs (works), a sewing runs, life runs smoothly, a bus runs, news runs, rivers run into the sea, works run, a story runs.
      11.  Mansion the meaning of this homonymy words : bank, mole, and pupil ?
Bank    (of a river, (financial institution)
mole    (on skin, small animal)
pupil    (at school, in the eye)
      12.  Give 3 examples polysemy in Madura language !
Koncok           : a mountain, a blade, a knife, the earth.
Bucor              : hole of water come in the roof, holle of water out in the bathtube, hole of water come in a sack.
Lakek              :  a gender, it show your gentle.
      13.  What type in Non-gradable antonymy that called recessives?
the ‘negative test’ to identify non gradable antonyms in a language.
      14.  what the definition of homonymy according Wagiman Adisutrisno?
Homonymy is a term to refer to one form, which is the same in both written and spoken with two o more unrelated meanings.
      15.  Give 3 examples homonymy in Madura language !





[1] George Yule, The Study Of Languange: 3th  Ediition (United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006),Pgs. 104.
[2] J.D Parera, Semantik Teori: Edisi Kedua (Ciracas, Jakarta:Erlangga,  2004),  Pgs. 61.
[3] Aminuddin, Mpd, Semantik Pengantarstudi Tentang Makn (Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo, 2008), Pgs. 115.
[4] Ibid, 104.
[5] Wagiman Adisutrisno, Semantic an Introduction to the basic concept (Yogyakarta: CV. Andi Offset, 2008), pgs. 31.
[6] J.D Parera, Semantik Teori: Edisi Kedua (Ciracas, Jakarta: Erlangga, 2004),  Pg.  70.
[7] Aminuddin, Mpd, Semantik Pengantarstudi Tentang Mak (Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo, 2008 ), Pgs. 122
[8] George Yule, The Study Of Languange: 3th  Ediition( United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006),  Pgs. 104.
[9] Ibid, 105.
[10] Wagiman Adisutrisno, Semantic an Introduction to the basic concept (Yogyakarta: CV. Andi Offset, 2008), pgs. 33.
[11] George Yule, The Study Of Languange: 3th  Ediition( United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006),  pgs. 107.
[12] J.D Parera, Semantik Teori: Edisi Kedua, Ciracas (Jakarta: Erlangga, 2004),  Pgs.  81.
[13] Aminuddin, Mpd, Semantik Pengantarstudi Tentang Makn (Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo, 2008),  Pgs.  123.
[14] George Yule, The Study Of Languange: 3th  Ediition( United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006),  pgs. 106.
[15] Aminuddin, Mpd, Semantik Pengantarstudi Tentang Makn (Bandung: Sinar Baru Algensindo, 2008),  Pgs.  124.
[16] Wagiman Adisutrisno, Semantic an Introduction to the basic concept (Yogyakarta: CV. Andi Offset, 2008), pgs. 34.
[17] J.D Parera, Semantik Teori: Edisi Kedua (Ciracas, Jakarta: Erlangga, 2004),  Pgs.  81.
[18] Yule George, The Study Of Languange: 3th  Ediition, (United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2006),page.118

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